Caution needed with anti-encryption tools that dodge data retention surveillance

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Caution needed with anti-encryption tools that dodge data retention surveillance

Hot on the heels of Canberra’s successful push for mandatory retention of telco records about who we call, and how much we web surf, and when we email, we sense a new debate about technologies that scramble the actual contents of our communications, so an investigator may be able to work out who we called or mailed, but never what was said or written.

Recent media articles have noted that the New South Wales Crime Commission has been hindered by phone systems that encrypt conversations that prevent a crime fighter from eavesdropping. While the new data retention laws may alert Batman to the fact that Joker and Penguin have been trading a lot of calls lately, and Commissioner Gordon might be more than willing to authorise a bat-intercept on the strength of that information, the chase comes to naught when the caped crusader’s phone tap reveals nothing more than gibberish on the line.

As Fairfax Media also reports, drug dealers and money launderers are using Phantom Secure, an encryption tool for Blackberry messages, and BlackPhones, a voice encrypter for Android phones, to communicate in code. No doubt terrorists are customers for the same technologies. So, just months after the national parliament reached an accord on mandatory requirements for communications companies to retain details about our calls, messages and web surfing, do we need to decide the even thornier questions of whether a ban on certain voice and data encryption tools is possible and, if so, whether it would be the right thing to do?

That’s a key difference between the existing so-called metadata retention law and any move against products like Phantom Secure and BlackPhone.All the retention law does, and even this much is highly contentious from a civil liberties perspective, is requires comms companies to keep certain transactional records.

A law dealing with encryption technologies would need to go much further, criminalising hardware, software and services that are already in common use including, as New South Wales police readily agree, by legitimate businesses. Mind you, as the human rights movement would point out, you needn’t be a business to have a right to communicate privately.

What might an anti-encryption law look like? 99 per cent of all encryption would have to be excepted. Every time we visit an authenticated website, or buy online using a bank or quasi-bank like Paypal, we unknowingly use automated encryption. These communications are scrambled on their way across the internet, but they begin and end language, and an appropriately authorised regulator that wants to know what information was exchanged can get their hands on it. This isn’t the kind of encryption that investigators need to worry about.

AN ENCRYPTION LICENCE?

One option is a law requiring users of high strength encryption tools to be licensed, like gun owners need a licence. Before guffawing at such a thought, be aware that this is how Team America tried to deal with the issue internationally. The first mass market, effectively unbreakable text encryption tool was called PGP, standing for Pretty Good Privacy. The acronym was an in-joke. The developers knew how good their solution was, and gave it a name that was like calling Adam Gilchrist PGC, a Pretty Good Cricketer.

PGP wasn’t restricted within the USA itself. They have a constitutional right of free speech. But anyone involved in unlicensed export to other countries committed a criminal offence against, believe it or not, a law against unauthorised sale of munitions. That was thirty years ago, and the discussion we may now be about to have about drug runners, money launderers and terrorists will cross ground that was well traversed back then.

Why should we let people we don’t trust access technologies that facilitate conversations that might be against our interests and that we can’t intercept no matter how reasonable our suspicions and how high the stakes?

The problem with that approach in 2015 is that any solution that compromises the rights to free or private speech and the presumption of innocence, and criminalises or licenses existing freedoms, should ring every alarm and flash every red light a modern democracy has to ring and flash.

If drug runners, money launderers and their ilk are using encryption tools, by all means let’s deal with that in a targeted, measured way. But let’s also never forget the thanks the developer of PGP once received from a dissident behind the Iron Curtain, for serving freedom and saving lives.

Privacy advocates and tech giants support encryption, which the FBI director finds “depressing”

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Privacy advocates and tech giants support encryption, which the FBI director finds “depressing”

There’s a privacy battle brewing between the FBI and other federal government groups on one side, and tech companies, cryptologists, privacy advocates (and some elected American lawmakers) on the other.

Basically, the FBI (circa-2015 edition) opposes the use of encryption to keep data secure from hackers, on the grounds that the government couldn’t get at it either.

So this week, a wide variety of organizations ranging from civil-liberty groups and privacy advocates to tech companies and trade associations to security and policy experts sent President Obama an open letter urging him to reject any legislation that would outlaw secure encryption:

Privacy advocates and tech giants support encryption, which the FBI director finds “depressing”

Change of heart

The FBI used to take the same view: encryption is a good way for innocent people to protect themselves and their personal data from criminals, so if encryption is available to you, you should use it.

In October 2012, the FBI’s “New E-Scams and Warnings” website even published an article warning that “Smartphone Users Should be Aware of Malware Targeting Mobile Devices and Safety Measures to Help Avoid Compromise.” That article included a bullet-pointed list of “Safety tips to protect your mobile device.”

And the second tip on the list says this: “Depending on the type of phone, the operating system may have encryption available. This can be used to protect the user’s personal data in the case of loss or theft.”

But in September 2013, when current FBI director James Comey took over the bureau, he also took a very different view of encryption: he thinks it only benefits criminals.

“Very dark place”

For example, when Apple launched its iPhone 6 last September, it bragged about the phone’s strong security features, including automatic data encryption. Comey then predicted that encrypted communications could lead to a “very dark place,” and criticized “companies marketing something expressly to allow people to place themselves beyond the law” (as opposed to, say, “Marketing something expressly so people know hackers can’t steal photographs, financial information and other personal data off their phones”).

Comey went so far as to suggest that Congress make data encryption illegal via rewriting the 20-year-old Communications Assistance in Law Enforcement Act to make it cover apps and other technologies which didn’t exist back in 1994.

And this week, in response to the tech companies’ and privacy advocates’ open letter to President Obama, Comey said he found the letter depressing: “I frankly found it depressing because their letter contains no [acknowledgment] that there are societal costs to universal encryption …. All of our lives, including the lives of criminals and terrorist and spies, will be in a place that is utterly unavailable to the court-ordered process. That, I think, to a democracy should be very concerning.”

Get a warrant

Yet despite Comey’s concerns, the idea that encryption would make it utterly impossible for police and courts to stop angerous criminals is not true. Even with encryption, police or the FBI can still get data off your phone; they just can’t do it without your knowledge. As Jose Pagliary pointed out:

Privacy advocates and tech giants support encryption, which the FBI director finds “depressing”

That’s what FBI Director James Comey finds “depressing,” or likely to lead to a “very dark place”: the idea that if the government wants access to your personal data, it still has to get a warrant first.

Google Hangouts doesn’t use end-to-end encryption

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Google Hangouts doesn't use end-to-end encryption

If you’re using Google Hangouts as your main messaging service, you might want to know that Hangouts doesn’t use end-to-end encryption (E2EE), a must-have feature for messaging services in the post-Snowden world.

This was recently confirmed during a Reddit Ask Us Anything (AUA) session by Google’s Richard Salgado, Director for Law Enforcement and Information Security, and David Lieber, Senior Privacy Policy Counsel.

As far as messaging services go, end-to-end encryption is a method of encrypting data so that only the sender and the recipient of a certain message can make sense of the data being transferred. The main thing to bear in mind is that the provider of an E2EE-encrypted messaging service cannot view the messages itself, as the data is encrypted and decrypted locally by the sender and the recipient.

While the service provider has access to the bits of information that are transmitted between the sender and the recipient, this data looks like complete gibberish without the encryption key. It’s worth noting that Whatsapp, the largest messaging service in the world, uses end-to-end encryption, as does Apple’s iMessage.

The two Google representatives confirmed that Hangouts only uses in-transit encryption, a method that prevents ISPs and telecom operators from peeking at the messages. Long story short, Google can intercept Hangouts conversations when ordered by law enforcement agencies and governments.
Google previously revealed that requests for user data coming in from governments across the globe rose one and a half times over the past five years, although the company did not break down the numbers by service.

Google admits Hangouts doesn’t use end-to-end encryption, opening the door for government wiretaps

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Google admits Hangouts doesn't use end-to-end encryption, opening the door for government wiretaps

If you’re really worried the government may be keeping tabs on your conversations, then you’d best avoid Hangouts.

According to Motherboard, a Google representative confirmed that Hangouts conversations are only encrypted “in transit,” meaning after the message arrives at the intended recipient Google could access it if forced to do so by a government wiretap.

The question arose from a Reddit AMA with two senior members of Google’s public policy and legal team. An ACLU representative pinned them down about encryption, but wasn’t able to get them to detail if all messages were encrypted from end-to-end.

Richard Salgado, Google’s director for law enforcement and information security, and David Lieber, the senior privacy policy counsel, would only confirm the in-transit encryption. Salgado reaffirmed the government’s prerogative to order such surveillance: “There are legal authorities that allow the government to wiretap communications.”

In reality, such wiretaps are rare. Google’s transparency report details only seven wiretap orders for nine accounts in the first half of 2014, the most recent data available because the U.S. government requires a six-month waiting period.

Why this matters: Apple has touted the privacy of iMessage as another advantage to the security conscious over Android. Other messaging platforms, like the Mark Cuban-backed Cyber Dust, also promise secrecy. Google may not see this extra step as necessary until a backlash arises from those who want more privacy from their Hangouts conversations.

Flawed encryption leaves millions of smart grid devices at risk of cyberattacks

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Flawed encryption leaves millions of smart grid devices at risk of cyberattacks

Millions of smart meters, thermostats, and other internet-connected devices are at risk of cyberattacks because they come with easily crackable encryption, a study has warned.

A paper by Philipp Jovanovic and Samuel Neves published in late April analyzed the cryptography used in the Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP), a group of specifications published by a European telecoms standards body. The protocol is used in more than four million devices, and said to be one of the most widely used protocols for smart devices today.

The results? Not great.

The researchers found that the “weak cryptography” can easily be cracked through a series of relatively simple attacks. In one case, the researchers said they could “completely” defeat a device’s cryptography.

The most common and trusted encryption standards use well-established, peer-reviewed cyphers that are open-source and readily available to inspect. Some have argued it’s the “first rule” of crypto-club. The problem for smart grid devices is that they don’t stand up to the scrutiny of the community.

The OSGP Alliance, the non-profit group behind the OSGP protocol, said last month it’s preparing an update to the specifications to add new security features.

“The alliance’s work on this security update is motivated by the latest recommended international cybersecurity practices, and will enhance both the primitives used for encryption and authentication as well as the key length, usage, and update rules and mechanisms,” the post read.

We reached out to the OSGP Alliance, but did not hear back outside business hours.